Nanomaterials: Uses and their Toxicity


The purpose of this tale is to provide details about biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) and their toxicology scrutiny to help readers quantify and qualify the toxicity of the drug products incorporating nanotechnology features.

Nano-technology in Medical applications

  • Drug delivery & Potential Therapies (Cancer & HIV) – The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: efficient encapsulation of the drugs, successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and successful release of the drug.
  • Imaging – Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal.
  • Sensing – Sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells. It enables the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages from a few drops of a patient’s blood.
  • Tissue engineering – Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications
  • Medical devices – Using nano devices enables computers to linked to the nervous system for sensing purposes.

Toxicity of nanomaterials

  • The production, use, and disposal of prepared NPs lead to discharges into air, soils, and aquatic systems.
  • Therefore, it is crucial to investigate their transport into the environment and their impacts on human health.
  • The indiscriminate use of engineered NPs with unknown toxicological properties might pose a variety of hazards for environment, wildlife, and human health.

Types of toxicity

Biological toxicity

  • NPs enters the human system via Mucociliary movement, oral intake of food, cosmetics, drugs & drug delivery system in nano scale
  • NPs primarily target the respiratory organs & gastrointestinal tract.
  • They first interact with biological components like proteins & cells.

Environmental toxicity

  • A lot of NPs to the environment, lead to nano particle pollution, by deposition of NPs in ground water & soil.
  • It also affects the ecosystem. Ex; toxicity of fullerene -C60 in aquatic species, increased LPO in gills.
  • The effects of NPs on plants and microbes are also rare.

Toxicity of nanoparticles depends on;

✔ Nature of chemical used for the synthesis

✔ Type of precursor

✔ Concentration of precursor

✔ Duration of exposure

✔ Personal susceptibility

✔ Mode of entry

✔ Size of nano particle

✔ Environmental factors

✔ Threshold value.


The nano particle ranges between 1 nm to 100 nm, enters into the human body through inhalation, skin contact & ingestion.


1. Most important route for the intake of airborne nano particle.

2. Depending on the size, particles are trapped in mucous layer and 0.1 nm size particles are exhaled.

3. Less than 7.0, deposit deep inside the lungs.

4. Less than 0.1 deposits in the alveolus.

5. The inhaled material may alter the deposition of particles and may remain permanently within the lung tissues.

Skin contact

1. The penetration of nanoparticles through skin occurs via lipids and dissolved material.

2. It causes exposure of nanoparticles through skin absorption.

3. Lipid solubility & molecular size are the most important factors.

4. Higher lipid solubility & small molecular size enhance NPs transformation towards body.


1. Compared with inhalation & skin absorption, ingestion plays a minor role in the absorption of toxic materials in industries.

2. Toxic materials that are soluble in body fluids are absorbed in the digestive system & circulated by the blood.

3. During the process of synthesis contaminated objects may entered into the mouth.

4. Insoluble toxic nano dust by while swallowed with food or saliva affects body functioning.

Mechanisms of toxicity

1. Oxidative stress: The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials can result in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. ROS and free radical production is one of the primary mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity; it may result in oxidative stress, inflammation, and consequent damage to proteins, membranes and DNA.

2. Cytotoxicity : A primary marker for the damaging effects of NPs has been cell viability as determined by state and exposed surface area of the cell membrane. NPs have been found to induce apoptosis in certain cells primarily due to the mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress brought on by the foreign NPs electrostatic reactions.

3. Genotoxicity : Metal and metal oxide NPs such as silver, zinc, copper oxide, uraninite, and cobalt oxide have also been found to cause DNA damage. The damage done to the DNA will often result in mutated cells and colonies as found with the HPRT gene test.

Toxic effects

✔ Allergy

✔ Fibrosis

✔ Organ failure

✔ Inflammation

✔ cytotoxicity

✔ Tissue damage

✔ ROS generation

✔ DNA damage

✔ Increase of Lipid peroxidation level

✔ Increase in expression of genes

✔ Decreases the rate of aerobic respiration


Reasons for toxicity

  • Increased in the surface area to volume ratio.
  • Chemical composition of the particles.
  • Surface change of the particles.
  • Hydrophobicity & lipophilic groups.
  • Complementarity of nanostructures.
  • Accumulation of innert particles in the body.

Although current toxicity testing protocols may be applied to identify harmful effects of NPs, research into new methods is required to address the special properties of nanomaterials. It is crucially important to assess their safety for sustainable implementation of nanotechnology with its full potential.

No specific regulations have been developed for NPs usage.

Nanomedcine and nanotoxicology are like the two sides of the coin, the worth this coin depends on its prudent use.


Dr. S. Ananda Babu
Assistant Professor
Department of Applied Chemistry
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Pennalur, Sriperumbudur Tk 602 117

Chem IoT en route for biomedical sensors

The sensors included in wearable devices depend entirely on the function and design of the device. IoT has become a big deal with sensor development as it spreads rapidly to science, industry, and even daily life. This folio discusses the role of IoT in modern materials chemists look into the trends in this field. It aims to form realistic knowledge that can be used in actual research field through theory and practice focused on ChemIoT.

Vital signs are used to measure the body’s basic functions. These measurements are taken to assess the general physical health of a person, giving clues to possible diseases and to show progress towards recovery.

There are four primary vital signs;

  • Body temperature
  • Blood pressure
  • Pulse (heart rate)
  • Breathing rate (respiratory rate)

However, depending on the clinical setting, the vital signs may include other measurements called the “fifth vital sign” or “sixth vital sign”. Vital signs are recorded using the sensors constructed based on metal, metal oxide, polymers and its composites. The technology revolution in the miniaturization of electronic devices is enabling to design more reliable and adaptable wearables, contributing for a world-wide change in the health monitoring approach. The next part discusses each of these signs, in terms of signal origin, medical and health importance, wearable sensors technology state-of-the-art.

  • Temperature sensing devices: The most recent examples of flexible temperature sensors are first discussed with regard to their materials, structures, electrical and mechanical properties; temperature sensing network technologies in new materials and structural designs are then presented based on platforms comprising of multiple physical sensors and stretchable electronics.
  • Blood pressure sensing devices: Blood Pressure can be measured both by invasive and non-invasive methods. In the non-invasive method, no piercing is required and is used easily. Blood Pressure Sensor is used to measure the blood pressure using the non-invasive method. It is similar to sphygmomanometer but instead of the mercury column, a pressure sensor is used to detect the blood pressure.
  • Respiratory rate monitoring devices: Monitoring respiration rate is an important task while evaluating a subject’s health. Respiration rate monitoring devices can be classified by a number of ways depending on the manner of their use and their operation. There is an ever-growing demand for measuring respiratory variables during a variety of applications, including monitoring in clinical and occupational settings, and during sporting activities and exercise.
  • Pulse or heart rate sensing devices: The preliminary research constructs the heart beat or pulse measurement for medical devices. The research prototype focuses the pulse rate and analysis system which consists of hardware and software parts.
  • Blood oxygen saturation sensing devices: Lack of oxygen, commonly termed as hypoxia, is frequently encountered in different disease states and is detrimental to human life. However, at the end of the 19th century, Paul Bert and James Lorrain Smith identified what is known as oxygen toxicity. The molecular basis of this phenomenon is oxygen’s readiness to accept electrons and to form different variants of aggressive radicals that interfere with normal cell functions.
  • Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) sensing devices: A number of different techniques for body composition assessment have been developed, from very simple indirect measures such as waist-to-hip ratio and calipers to sophisticated direct volumetric measurements based on three-dimensional imaging techniques. There are also a range of invasive or in vitro methods for body composition analysis such as inhalation or injection of water-accumulating or fat-accumulating agents, or dissection and chemical analysis of cadavers.
  • Pain sensing devices: Facial expressions are among behavioural signs of pain that can be employed as an entry point to develop an automatic human pain assessment tool. Such a tool can be an alternative to the self-report method and particularly serve patients who are unable to self-report like patients in the intensive care unit and minors. A wearable device with a biosensing facial mask is proposed to monitor pain intensity of a patient by utilizing facial surface electromyogram. The wearable device works as a wireless sensor node and is integrated into an Internet of Things system for remote pain monitoring.

The Internet of Chemical Things is perched to alter further research for the better sensor developments. We believe it is time to protect our precious human resource by allowing our materials to assist sensor for our future biomedical development. In the next few years chemistry will change in the ways outlined.

Dr. S. Ananda Babu
Assistant Professor
Department of Applied Chemistry


Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is an academic program that integrates the field of Computer Engineering and Computer Science. The program, which emphasizes the basics of computer programming and logical thinking, comprises a plethora of topics. The topics are related to computation, algorithms, programming languages, program design, computer software, computer hardware, etc. 

Computer science engineering jobs include many aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers to circuit designing and writing software through logical thinking that powers them. 

Information technology (IT), in today’s world Information Technology (IT), has become the most fundamental need for the proper functioning of human society. Be it running the banks or getting food from an eatery home-delivered; Information Technology has become part and parcel of our lives. This dependence on Information Technology has given rise to the demand for learning and further innovation in this field. As a result, it has become one of the most popular areas in education and career. You can find IT specialization in every branch of education, from IT & Software, Engineering, Aviation and Medicine to MBA and even Hospitality. In such a scenario, a career in IT sector is the most relevant and financially rewarding path to follow for students. 


Indian IT and ITES Industry 

The global sourcing market in India continues to grow at a higher pace compared to the IT-BPM industry. India is the leading sourcing destination across the world, accounting for approximately 55 percent market share of the US$ 185-190 billion global services sourcing business in 2017-18. Indian IT & ITeS companies have set up over 1,000 global delivery centers in about 80 countries across the world.  

India has become the digital capabilities hub of the world, with around 75 percent of global digital talent present in the country. 


Market Size  

The IT-BPM sector in India stood at US$177 billion in 2019, witnessing a growth of 6.1 percent year-on-year and is estimated that the size of the industry will grow to US$ 350 billion by 2025. India’s IT & ITeS industry grew to US$ 181 billion in 2018-19. Exports from the industry increased to US$ 137 billion in FY19, while domestic revenues (including hardware) advanced to US$ 44 billion. The IT industry employs 4.1 million people as of FY19. 

Spending on information technology in India is expected to reach US$ 90 billion in 2019. 

Revenue from the digital segment is expected to comprise 38 percent of the forecasted US$ 350 billion industry revenue by 2025. 


Investments/ Developments 

Indian IT’s core competencies and strengths have attracted significant investments from major countries. The computer software and hardware sector in India attracted cumulative Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows worth US$ 39.47 billion between April 2000 and June 2019. It ranks second in an inflow of FDI, as per data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT). 

Leading Indian IT firms like Google, Amazon, Zoho, Infosys, Wipro, TCS, and Tech Mahindra, are diversifying their offerings and showcasing leading ideas in blockchain, artificial intelligence to clients. They are using innovation hubs, research, and development centers to create differentiated offerings. 

Some of the major developments in the Indian IT and ITeS sector are as follows: 

  • The total export revenue of the industry is expected to grow 8.3 percent year-on-year to US$ 136 billion in FY19.
  • UK-based tech consultancy firm, Contino, has been acquired by Cognizant.
  • In May 2019, Infosys acquired a 75 percent stake in ABN AMRO Bank’s subsidiary Stater for US$ 143.08 million
  • In June 2019, Mindtree was acquired by L&T.
  • Nasscom has launched an online platform that is aimed at up-skilling over 2 million technology professionals and skilling another 2 million potential employees and students. 
  • Revenue growth in the BFSI vertical stood at 6.80 percent y-o-y between July-September 2018.
  • As of March 2018, there were over 1,140 GICs operating out of India.
  • PE investments in the sector stood at US$ 2,400 million in Q4 2018.

Government Initiatives 

Some of the major initiatives taken by the government to promote the IT and ITeS sector in India are as follows: 

  • In May 2019, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) launched theMeitYStartup Hub (MSH) portal. 
  • In February 2019, the Government of India released the National Policy on Software Products 2019 to develop India as a software product nation
  • The government has identified Information Technology as one of 12 champion service sectors for which an action plan is being developed. Also, the government has set up a Rs 5,000 crore (US$ 745.82 million) fund for realizing the potential of these champion service sectors. 
  • As a part of Union Budget 2018-19, NITI Aayog is going to set up a national-level program that will enable efforts in AI^ and will help in leveraging AI^ technology for development works in the country.
  • In the Interim Budget 2019-20, the Government of India announced plans to launch a national program on AI* and setting up of a National AI* portal.
  • National Policy on Software Products-2019 was passed by the Union Cabinet to develop India as a software product nation.


Following are the achievements of the government during 2017-18: 

  1. About 200 Indian IT firms are present in around 80 countries.
  2. IT exports from India are expected to reach the highest ever mark of US$ 137billionof of revenues in FY19 growing at 8.3 percent. 
  3. Revenue of GICs is expected to touch US$ 50 billion by 2025.
  4. Indian IT firms generated the highest ever revenue at US$ 181 billion in 2018-19.


Road Ahead 

India is the leading offshoring destination for IT companies across the world. Having proven its capabilities in delivering both on-shore and offshore services to global clients, emerging technologies now offer an entire new gamut of opportunities for top IT firms in India. Export revenue of the industry is expected to grow 7-9 percent year-on-year to US$ 135-137 billion in FY19. The industry is expected to grow to US$ 350 billion by 2025, and BPM is expected to account for US$ 50-55 billion out of the total revenue. 

Career in the IT sector 

India is considered the hub of IT education, with over 4000 institutes and colleges offering various courses at undergraduate, postgraduate, doctoral, and certificate level. Besides, it is a known fact that almost all the top global IT companies have a sizable number of Indian IT graduates working in various capacities. In fact, the USA accounts for more than 60% of Indian IT professionals. 

Information Technology courses are taught at both UG and PG degree levels. Various institutions in India also offer short-term courses like IT diplomas and certifications.  

What media is mentioning in the news? 

Indian tech industry facing biggest-ever HR challenge needs to recruit, skill two mn professionals: 

The Economic Times 

The increasing competition has not left organizations with much of an alternative. They have to either embrace the challenge or perish, according to the report titled ‘AI & Future Of Work: Redefining Future Of Enterprise.’ Employability with technology continues to be a problem despite India having a large number of higher academic institutions. 

The Indian technology industry is facing its biggest-ever HR challenge with the need to recruit and skill more than 2 million professionals, as growing demand for ‘exponential tech professionals’ puts extreme pressure on it to remain globally competitive, according to a report. 

Employability with technology continues to be a problem despite India having a large number of higher academic institutions, it added. 

“There is an expected supply of 7 million people for the Indian technology industry that consists of graduates, PGs (postgraduates), diploma holders and PhDs (but) overall employability is 18 percent only,” the report said.

On the other hand, it said, “Several jobs at the mid-level of Indian technology companies are becoming redundant or changing dynamically. Massive re-skilling in exponential technologies required swiftly.”





  • Cloud Computing 
  • Artificial Intelligence & Data Science 
  • Machine Learning and Deep Learning 
  • Natural Language Processing 
  • Cyber Security 
  • BlockChain 
  • Analytical Reasoning 
  • UX Design 
  • Mobile Application Development 
  • Social Media Marketing 
  • Scientific Computing 
  • Game Development 

Now let us go through them one by one. 


Cloud Computing is a term where anything or everything is provided as a service over the Internet. These are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol. 

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that make it different from traditional web hosting. It is sold on demand, mainly by the minute or the hour, it is flexible as a user can have as much or as little of a service as they need at any given time, and the service is only managed by the provider. 

A cloud may be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone who wants its services. Presently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider. A private cloud is a network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a handful number of people. Private or public, the main aim of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computer resources and IT services. 

Cloud Computing Characteristics and Benefits: 

  • Self Service Provisioning:  End users can use compute resources for almost any type of workload on demand. This eliminates the need for IT administrators to provide and manage compute resources. 
  • Elasticity: Corporations can scale up as computing needs increase and scale down again as demands decrease. This eliminates the need for massive investments in the infrastructure. 
  • Pay per use: Compute resources are measured at a granular level, enabling users to pay only for the resources and workloads they use. 
  • Workload resilience: Cloud service providers typically implement most occurring resources to keep storage and to keep important workloads of user’s running often across multiple global regions. 
  • Migration flexibility: Organizations will move certain workloads to or from the cloud or to different cloud platforms as desired for better cost savings or to use new services as they emerge. 

Types of Cloud Computing Services 

Cloud computing has changed over time, it has been divided into three different service categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS). 

IaaS providers supply a virtual server instance and storage, and APIs that enable users to migrate workloads to a VM. Users have a fixed storage capacity and can start, stop, access and configure the VM and storage as we desire. IaaS providers offer small, medium, large clouds in addition to customized instances, for various workload needs. 

In the PaaS model, cloud suppliers host development tools on their infrastructures. Users access these tools over the internet using web portals or gateway software. PaaS is used for general software development, and many PaaS suppliers host the software after it’s developed. PaaS providers include Salesforce, AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Google App Engine. 

SaaS is a distribution model that delivers software applications across the internet; these applications are called web services. Users will access SaaS applications and services from any location using a computer or mobile device that has internet connection. Most common example of a SaaS application is Microsoft Office 365 for productivity and email services. 



John McCarthy, who named the term in 1956 and defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. 

Some other names for the field have been proposed, which are computational intelligence, synthetic intelligence or computational rationality. 

Artificial intelligence is also used to describe a property of machines or programs which is the intelligence that the system demonstrates. Artificial Intelligence research uses tools and information from many fields, including computer science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, probability, optimization and logic. 

Artificial Intelligence analysis also overlaps with tasks such as robotics, control systems, data mining, logistics, speech recognition, facial recognition and many other tasks. Learning of the machine is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing. 

Application of AI 

Gaming: AI plays a major role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machines have to think of a large number of possible positions.

Natural Language Processing: It has now been made possible to interact with the computer that understands the language spoken by humans.

Expert Systems: There are some special applications that integrate machines, software, and special data to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanations and recommendations to the users.

Vision Systems: These are the systems that understand, observe, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,oA spying airplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. nowadays, Doctors use the clinical expert system to diagnose the patient. police using computer software that is able to recognize the face of a criminal with the stored portrait created by a forensic artist. 

Speech Recognition: Some intelligent systems have the capability of hearing and understanding the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It will still recognize your voice if you use different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human noise due to cold, etc.

Handwriting Recognition: The handwriting recognition software reads the text which is written on paper by a pen or on the screen by a stylus. It is also able to recognize the shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text.

Intelligent Robots: Robots are made intelligent enough to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors located inside them to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have highly efficient processors, multiple sensors, and huge amounts of memory, to exhibit intelligence. They are also capable of learning from their mistakes and can easily adapt to the new environment.



Data science is a blend of data inference, algorithm development, and technology to solve analytically complex problems which arise in day to day situations. The ultimate goal of Data Science is to use this data in creative ways to generate business value. 



Machine Learning is mainly based on algorithms and they are a sequence of instructions used to solve a problem. Algorithms are developed by programmers to instruct computers in new tasks and are the building blocks of the advanced digital world which we are seeing today. Computer algorithms can organize a large amount of data into information and services that are based on certain instructions and rules. 

Instead of programming the computer every step of the way, this approach offers the computer directions that allow it to learn from data without new instructions at each step by the programmer. This means that computers can be used for new, complicated tasks that were not possible to program manually. Tasks like photo recognition applications for the visually impaired or the task of translating pictures into speech. 

The basic process of machine learning is to give the data which is acquired during training to a learning algorithm. The learning algorithm then generates a new set of rules, based on inferences from the data. By using different types of training data, the same learning algorithm can be used to generate different types of models. For e.g. this type of learning algorithm could be used to teach the computer how to translate different languages or predict the stock market. 

Deep learning is a part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks with representation learning. Deep learning architectures such as deep neural networks, deep belief networks, recurrent neural networks, convolutional neural networks, have been applied to fields including computer vision, speech recognition, Natural Language Processing, AR and VR etc. where they have produced results comparable to and in some cases surpassing human expert performance. 

How Machines Learn? 

Supervised learning: The learning algorithm is given a set of data which is labelled and the desired output. For e.g., pictures of dogs labelled “dog” will help the algorithm identify the rules to classify pictures of dogs. 

 Unsupervised learning: The data given to the learning algorithm is not labelled, and the algorithm is asked to search for patterns in the input data. For e.g., the recommendation system of an e-commerce website where the learning algorithm discovers similar items often bought together. 

 Reinforcement learning: The algorithm interacts with a dynamic environment and keeps learning from experience and provides feedback. For e.g., self-driving cars. 

The current growth in Artificial Intelligence and machine learning is tied to developments in three important areas 

 Data availability: We can say that over 3 billion people are online with around 17 billion connected devices or sensors, which generate a large amount of data which when combined with decreasing costs of data storage, can be easily available for use. Machine learning can use this as training data for learning algorithms and hence making new rules to perform increasingly complex tasks. 

   Computing power: Powerful computers and their ability to connect remote processing power through the Internet and make it possible for machine learning techniques to process these huge amounts of data. 

 Algorithmic innovation: These new machine learning techniques, specifically in neural networks which is also known as “deep learning” have inspired new services, but are also making investments and research in other parts of the field. 

Social and Economic Impact: It is predicted that Artificial Intelligence technologies will bring economic changes which will result in an increase in productivity. This includes the use of machines that will be able to perform new tasks, such as self-driving cars, advanced robots or smart assistants to support people in their daily lives. 


Cybersecurity, an evolving information technology security field mainly focuses on the protection of computers and data from unintended and unauthorized users. There is a heavy demand for the cybersecurity analyst jobs in the wings of the army, police, and software companies. In the current era as the information and data is being hacked, the role of the cybersecurity professionals is going to be extremely challenging. 


Block chain, distributed  or digital ledger mainly for recording the details of financial and non financial transactions. It is a combination of cryptography, programming and networking technologies which makes a revolution in the field of information registration and distribution for making a trustable digital relationship. 


NLP is a combination of three Technologies such as machine learning ,Artificial Intelligence and linguistics to talk to machines, as if they were humans .These Technologies empowers the chatbot Google search engine ,Amazon’s Alexa ,Siri of Apple and  Google translator in the business worlde.It harness the unstructured data, acts as personal digital assistant and helps to make an effective analytical decision.  


Computer graphics is the production of images on computers which can be used in any medium. Images that are used in the graphic design are often produced on computers, as well as the still and moving images we see in animations. The real life images seen in electronic games and computer simulations would not have been created or supported without the enhanced capabilities of modern day computer graphics. 

Computer graphics are also important for scientific visualization, a part of computer graphics that uses images and colours to model complex phenomena such as air currents and electric fields, in which objects are drawn on a computer and analyzed in computer programs. Even the windows-based graphical user interface, which is a common means of interacting with a lot of computer programs, is associated with computer graphics. 


User experience (UX) design is the process of creating products that provides us with meaningful and relevant experiences to the users. This involves the design of the entire process of acquiring the product and including aspects of branding, design, usability, and function. 

User Experience Design is usually associated with terms like User Interface Design and Usability, Usability and User Interface Design are important aspects of UX Design. A UX designer is concerned with the entire process of acquiring and integrating a product which includes aspects of branding, design, usability and function. 

UX designers don’t just focus on creating products that are usable; they concentrate on other aspects of the user experience, such as pleasure, efficiency and fun, too. 


Mobile application development is the process by which a mobile application is developed for mobile devices. 

The difference between a good application and a bad application is usually because of the quality of its user experience (UX). A good UX design is what separates successful apps from unsuccessful ones. Nowadays, mobile users expect a lot from an application such as fast loading time, ease of use and delight during an interaction. If you want your application to be successful, you have to consider UX to be not just a small aspect of design, but an essential part of product strategy.

What to work on in Mobile Development? 

Minimize Cognitive Load: Cognitive load here refers to the amount of brain power required to use the application. The human brain has a limited amount of processing power, so you should keep in mind to not provide too much information at once, it might overwhelm the user and make them abandon the task. 

  • Decluttering: Clutter is one of the worst enemies of good design. By cluttering your interface, you overload users with a lot of information: Every added button, image and icon makes the screen more complicated, so make sure to keep it simple. Clutter is terrible on desktop, but it is more worse on mobile .It’s essential to get rid of anything in a mobile design that is not necessary because reducing clutter will improve comprehension. 
  • Offload Tasks: We look for anything in the design that requires user effort, and look for other alternatives. For example, in some cases you can reuse previously entered data instead of asking the user to type again, or use already available information. 
  • Familiar Screens: Familiar screens are those screens which the users see in many apps. Screens such as “Getting started,” “What’s new” and “Search results” have become standards for mobile applications. They do not require additional explanation because these features are known to the users. This allows users to use prior experience to interact with the application, with no learning curve. 
  • Anticipate User’s Needs: We look for steps in the user journey where users might need help. 
  • Avoid Jargon: Clear communication should always be a top most priority in any mobile application. Use what you know about the audience you are targeting to determine whether certain words or phrases are appropriate. 
  • Make the Design Consistent: Consistency is a fundamental principle of design. Consistency eliminates confusion. Maintaining an overall consistent appearance throughout an application is essential.  


Social media marketing is the most powerful way for businesses to reach prospects and customers. The customers are already interacting with brands via social media, and if you do not speak directly to your audience through social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest, you’re missing out the opportunity to promote your product. Good marketing is the main element of social media marketing and can bring success to your business. 

Social media marketing, or SMM, is a type of internet marketing that involves creating and sharing your content on social media in order to achieve the marketing goals set by your corporation. Social media marketing includes activities like posting text and uploading images or videos, and other content that keeps the audience engaged, as well as paid social media advertising. 

Social Media Marketing can help meet a number of goals, such as: 

  • SMM can help in increasing the website traffic 
  • SMM  can help in building conversions 
  • Raising brand awareness of a product 
  • To create a brand identity and positive brand association 
  • Improving communication and interaction with the key audiences 


Scientific Computing is the collection of tools, techniques, and theories which are required to be solved on a computer. 

Most of these tools, techniques, and theories were originally developed in Mathematics and many of them come long before the introduction of electronic computers.  

This set of mathematical theories and techniques is called Numerical Analysis and constitutes a major part of scientific computing. 

Many of the numerical methods that had been developed for the purpose of hand calculation had to be revised and sometimes abandoned. Considerations that were irrelevant or unimportant for hand calculation now became of utmost importance for the efficient and correct use of a large Computer System. 

Many of these considerations such as programming languages, operating systems, management of large quantities of data, correctness of programs all were put under the new discipline of Computer Science, on which scientific computing now heavily depends. Mathematics still continues to play a vital role in scientific computing because it provides the language for the mathematical models that are solved and information about the availability of a model and it provides the theoretical foundation for the numerical strategies and, increasingly, many of the tools from computer science.


Video game development is the field that consists of many aspects involved in creating a video game. Every video game needs a concept, storyline, graphic design and to make the public release of the product. 

Video game development is a very vast field; it is a combination of game production and game design and requires skills from both fields forming the core of a video game developer’s knowledge. 

A video game developer usually holds a big position in the creation of a video game, who guides the project through multiple phases. 

A video game developer is a mixture of a producer and a programmer, they are coordinating administrators with a great vision who also possess the technical skill to overcome and they also contribute to software engineering, editing and other aspects of game design. 

Roles of a Development Team 

  • Game Producer 
  • Game Artist 
  • Programmer 
  • Graphic Designer 
  • Creative Writer 
  • Storyline Editor 
  • Audio Specialist 
  •  Level Designer 








In India, the computer science engineering scope is increasing day by day. Let’s know more about the job roles and responsibilities of computer engineers.  

Software Developer 

Software developers create software programs that allow users to perform specific tasks on various devices, such as computers or mobile devices. They are responsible for the entire development, testing, and maintenance of software. 

Software developers must have the technical creativity required to solve problems uniquely. They need to be fluent in the computer languages that are used to write the code for programs. 

Communication skills are vital for securing the necessary information and insight from end users about how the software is functioning. 

Database Administrator 

Database administrators analyze and evaluate the data needs of users. They develop and improve the data resources used to store and retrieve critical information. 

They need the problem-solving skills of the computer science major to correct any malfunctions in databases and to modify systems in line with the evolving needs of users. 

Computer Hardware Engineer 

Computer hardware engineers are responsible for designing, developing, and testing computer components, such as circuit boards, routers, and memory devices. 

Computer hardware engineers need a combination of creativity and technical expertise. They must be avid learners who stay on top of emerging trends in the field to create hardware that can accommodate the latest programs and applications. 

Computer hardware engineers must have the perseverance to perform comprehensive tests of systems, again and again, to ensure the hardware is functioning as it should. 

Computer Systems Analyst 

Computer systems analysts assess an organization’s computer systems and recommend changes to hardware and software to enhance the company’s efficiency. 

Because the job requires regular communication with managers and employees, computer systems analysts need to have strong interpersonal skills. Systems analysts need to be able to convince staff and management to adopt technology solutions that meet organizational needs. 

Also, systems analysts need the curiosity and thirst for continual learning to track trends in technology and research cutting-edge systems. 

Systems analysts also need business skills to recognize what’s best for the entire organization. Similar job titles are business analysts or business systems analysts. 

Computer Network Architect 

Computer network architects design, implement, and maintain networking and data communication systems, including local area networks, wide area networks, extranets, and intranets. They assess the needs of organizations for data sharing and communications. 

Computer network architects also evaluate the products and services available in the marketplace. Computer network architects test systems before they are implemented and resolve problems as they occur after the setup is in place. 

Computer network architects need to have the analytical skills to evaluate computer networks. 

Web Developer 

Web developers assess the needs of users for information-based resources. They create the technical structure for websites and make sure that web pages are accessible and easily downloadable through a variety of browsers and interfaces. 

Web developers structure sites to maximize the number of page views and visitors through search engine optimization. They must have the communication skills and creativity needed to ensure the website meets its users’ needs. 

Information Security Analyst 

Information security analysts create systems to protect information networks and websites from cyberattacks and other security breaches. Their responsibilities also include researching trends in data security to anticipate problems and install systems to prevent issues before they occur. 

Security analysts also need strong problem-solving skills to investigate breaches, determine the causes, and modify or repair security systems. 

Computer and Information Research Scientists 

Computer and information research scientists invent and design new approaches to computing technology and find innovative uses for existing technology. They study and solve complex problems in computing for business, science, medicine, and other fields. 

Computer and information research scientists write algorithms that are used to detect and analyze patterns in very large datasets. Some computer and information research scientists create the programs that control robots. 

Computer and Information Systems Managers 

Computer science engineering jobs include computer and information systems managers analyze a company’s technology needs and oversee the implementation of appropriate data systems. They need to be able to evaluate software, hardware, networking, and other technology resources for purchase or development purposes. 

Because computer and information systems managers hire, train, and supervise staff, interpersonal skills are vital in this role. They must be strong leaders who can communicate effectively with their staff. 

IT Project Manager 

Project managers in the IT sector coordinate the efforts of a team of programmers/developers and analysts to complete projects. They also analyze technical problems for their company or a client organization, proposing solutions and tips to enhance productivity. 

Problem-solving skills and a broad knowledge of technology and computer systems help computer science majors excel in this role. Strong communication skills are required to decipher the needs of users and convey technical specifications to developers. 

Other Roles 

Data Scientist / Data Associate : for this profile companies mostly prefer students who have worked or taken courses in this area. It pays as you grow experienced. Experience matters here. 

Software Engineers: these are mostly product or services developers in the industry. Some come with a profile like front-end developer/ back- end-developer .It is also one and the same thing. So these will be mostly the application building guys. 

Infrastructure: Some companies offer the Software engineer profile but for the Infrastructure. This mostly includes your storage, database, deployment, cloud etc. You may work on writing scripts for the automation of the infrastructure maintenance process. Basically sub roles under this are DB admin etc. 

System Engineer : It is closer to the hardware. You mostly work on c/c++ etc. Work on software specific to a hardware. However, it is also good as it is lately being intersected with Artificial Intelligence, robotics etc. 

Security Engineer: As the name says, again it requires a skill in handling security issues. You basically work towards securing systems. writing authentication artifacts. 

Business Analyst: Basically it involves dealing with clients and chalking out the requirements and product boundaries and getting the required features in product or services. 

Delivery manager: It is basically an Architect role. Architects require you to be aware of everything from start to finish in a product or service development role. It requires coding as well. It is highly unlikely that you get this profile for graduates. 





Electrical Engineers use knowledge of machines, circuitry, and power generation to plan, design, and implement projects that harness different components of electricity and power. They use their electrical system knowledge in projects that are so small they could fit into your pocket to larger projects like ‘aircraft electrical systems or communications systems’. Once done, they design and test their projects, ensuring that everything created is safe.  


One can find space for an electrical engineer in a wide range of fields. The field continues to be lucrative with the advent of all the 21st-century computing technology and electrical devices like smartphones and computer systems. The electrical engineer even has an extensive opportunity within the field of biomedical engineering.  

TYPES OF INDUSTRIES FOR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS Electrical engineers are usually concerned with large-scale electrical systems like motor control and power transmission in power transmission company jobs, utilizing electricity to transmit energy, etc. Electrical engineers work on a diverse range of technologies, such as the designing of household appliances, lighting, and wiring of buildings, telecommunication systems, electrical power stations, satellite communications, etc. Another emerging field for electrical engineers is microelectronics, which involves the designing and development of electrical systems and circuits in computers and mobile devices. 

SVCE graduates are not just limited to the industries mentioned above. The Electrical Engineering degree at SVCE teaches you excellent problem-solving skills and logical thinking. The courses are structured in a way that encourages analytical thinking, helps students master time management, and ensure the technical proficiency of the students.[Text Wrapping Break] 

 Because of this, electrical engineers from SVCE are in high demand in various areas, including: 

 Renewable energy 

  • Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies
  • Mobile networking
  • Banking
  • Finance
  • Arts
  • Management Consulting 

Most people relate Electrical Engineering with wires and circuits, but it is much more than that. Electrical Engineers are needed not only in the construction or power industry but also in telecommunication, IT, navigation, railways, automobile, architecture, aerospace, defense, etc. From maintaining power grids to supervising research and development of electronic devices and technology to designing circuits for computers, Electrical Engineers are required in various fields. 

This branch of Engineering is basically required broadly in two fields: Power and Telecommunication. 


 Power Engineers are involved in the generation and transmission of electricity. Their service is sought the most in the automobile industry as they are responsible for designing, manufacturing, and maintaining engines and maintaining the flow of power from the engine attached to devices. Power Engineers have specialized skills in microelectronics as well, where they design and manufacture tiny power circuits used in computers and other electronic devices.  


 They mainly work on designing and maintenance of cables. Their service is also sought for the production of receivers and transceivers. Key roles of an Electrical Engineer are:[Text Wrapping Break] 

  • Designing, manufacturing and operating power plants, industrial machinery, electrical motors, and ignition systems for automobiles, aircraft, space crafts and other types of engines

  Research and design improved ways of using electrical power 

 Compute the cost of manufacture, construction, and installation of electrical equipment as per specifications 

Some of the Electrical Engineering jobs include: 

  1. Control and Instrumentation
  2. Engineer Electronics Engineer
  3. Broadcast Engineer
  4. Design Engineer
  5. Consultant
  6. Electronics Engineer
  7. Systems Analyst
  8. Nuclear Engineer


The earning potential of an electrical engineer is sure to experience a hike in the coming years. According to the basic law of demand and supply, the more the demand, the higher is the price associated. As the future would experience a rise in the electrical engineering domain by 8 to 9%, the need for skilled professionals would automatically rise, thereby elevating the compensation packages as well. At present, an electrical engineer draws a salary of 3-4 lakhs per annum at the entry-level, which has been predicted to go up by 9% in the coming years. This signifies a substantial leap in the earning capacity of professionals in this domain. 

The roles and responsibilities that electrical engineers carry are likely to act as a catalyst to boost their market demand in the coming times. This makes it evident that electrical engineering is and will undoubtedly remain a profitable venture for those aspiring to make a career in the same.   



Are EEE Engineers going to save the mother Earth and make it greener? Have a look at this article.  


Electric power is one of the most significant inventions, which has transformed the way we live and communicate. Electrical and Electronics Engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the study of the application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. There is hardly any other domain that serves humanity in such a vigorous manner and is going to make the mother earth greener. Hence, it is almost inevitable that electrical engineering will remain as one of the best career choices, even in the coming future.

Electrical and Electronics Engineers design and identify new ways to power our planet and satellites; design microelectronics circuits to make computer chips and smart devices; build robots to automate the industries and undertake precision surgeries; design ignition systems for automobiles, aircraft, space crafts and all kinds of engines, and much more. Electrical and electronics engineers also learn computer engineering, which integrates hardware and software components in electronic devices and embedded systems. 

The students at SVCE use engineering principles to design, build and control electrical systems encompassing macro to micro machines, solve real-world challenges, and improve our quality of life. They learn from experts, the nuances of Electric circuit design, Electrical machines, Power electronics, Power Systems, Embedded systems, and Nanotechnology and apply them in real-world applications.   

 The major growth for Electrical and Electronics engineers lies in the following sectors:

  • Electric Vehicles (Electrical Machines Design, Power Electronic Drives, Micro Electronics, Control Design, Battery management)
  • Renewable Energy Sector (Solar and Wind)
  • Power Sector Companies(Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Smart Grid) 
  • Energy Auditing
  • Robotics and Automation
  • Embedded systems

Nowadays, Electrical and Electronics Engineers with their allied Computer Engineering subjects work in many sectors of society and industry. They conduct their work in several areas, including Cybersecurity, Networking, Design Automation, Machine Intelligence, Computer Software, Internet of Things (IoT), Biomedical, and Embedded Systems.   

A graduated, qualified Electrical and Electronics Engineer has a wide option to choose his/her line of work from various areas such as:

–  Engineering Services 

–  Research and Developments including Social benefits of Renewable Energy

–  Electric Vehicles (Machine Design, Power Electronic Drives, Battery Management, Automation, and Control) 

– Electric Power Transmission and Distribution 

– Semiconductor and Electronic component manufacturing 

– Navigation 

– Measuring and Control instruments manufacturing 

– Embedded system 

– Data analytics 

– Mobile Technology 


  • The department has been accredited with the top grade by the NBA since April 2002.
  • Recognized by Anna University, Chennai, as approved research center for Ph.D. / MS (by Research) with effect from January 2006.
  • The curriculum and syllabus have been fine-tuned as per the requirements of industries and research trends.
  • The major thrust areas of research and centers of excellence are DST FIST sponsored Interdisciplinary Nano Research Centre, Electric Vehicle Design, Renewable Energy Sources, Smart Grid, Power Electronics and Drives, Power System,  Design of Electrical Machines, Digital Signal Processing, VLSI and Embedded Systems, Control System Design.
  • On an average over 65 companies visits for campus placements
  • External Research grant of over Rs.1.20 crore received from DST, AICTE, and IEI R&D in the last three years for various projects.
  • The department has been supporting a few reputed companies like PanickkerSwitchGearPvt. Ltd, GLR Laboratories, Chennai, to carry out their project at our world-class laboratories and facilities.
  • The department carries out lots of consultancies works from its associated companies, and it also supports students from other reputed colleges to utilize its facilities to a large extent.




Electronics and Communications Engineering (ECE) involves researching, designing, developing, and testing of electronic equipment used in various systems. Electronics and Communications engineers also conceptualize and oversee the manufacturing of communications and broadcast systems.

This stream of engineering deals with analog transmission, basic electronics, microprocessors, solid-state devices, digital and analog communication, analog integrated circuits, microwave engineering, satellite communication, antennae, and wave progression. It also deals with the manufacturing of electronic devices, circuits, and communications equipment.

The future of technology advancements is likely to depend on the developments in the electronics and communication field. Electronics and communication are the two primary pillars of our society these days. In the coming years, the trend will continue, and ECE will eventually emerge as one of the most prominent fields of engineering studies with substantial demand for ECE engineers all over the world.

Over the years, communication and electronics have crept in our lives like never before. This change in the technological field has ensured a bright path ahead for ECE pursuers. With smartphones in hand and widespread opportunities to communicate, electronics and communication engineering is the next best thing to rule the global market.

Let’s have a brief look into the future potential of the electronics and communication field of engineering.


Apart from the smooth modes of communication, smart electronic devices have also become indispensable for all of us. Starting from FM radios to high-end satellites, there is hardly any sphere left these days which does not include electronic devices within its periphery. The impact is expected to grow in the future as well, and the same would imply a sustained and increasing demand for ECE in the times to come.

The major growth for Electronics and Communication engineers lies in the following industries:

  • Telecommunication
  • Sciences and R&D
  • Consumer durables

Let us look at each of the industries, how the market looks, and the future prospects.


The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio, or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are telephone (both wired and wireless) operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers.

Recently, the telecommunications sector comprised a club of prominent national and regional operators. Since the early 2000s, the industry has been swept up in rapid deregulation and innovation. In many countries around the world, government monopolies are now privatized, and they face a plethora of new competitors. Traditional markets have been turned upside down, as the growth in mobile services outpaces the fixed-line, and the internet starts to replace voice as the staple business.

India is currently the world’s second-largest telecommunications market with a subscriber base of 1.20 billion and has registered strong growth in the past decade and a half. The Indian mobile economy is overgrowing and will contribute substantially to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to a report prepared by GSM Association (GSMA) in collaboration with the Boston Consulting Group (BCG). As of January 2019, India has witnessed a 165 percent growth in app downloads in the past two years. Around 4.8 billion downloads of mobile applications were registered in India in the first three months of 2019.

Market Size of Telecommunication Industry

The telecommunications sector comprises three primary sub-sectors: telecom equipment (the largest), telecom services (next largest), and wireless communication.

The major segments within these sub-sectors include the following:

  • Wireless communications
  • Communications equipment
  • Processing systems and products
  • Long-distance carriers
  • Domestic telecom services
  • Foreign telecom services
  • Diversified communication services

India ranks as the world’s second-largest market in terms of total internet users. The number of internet subscribers in the country increased at a CAGR of 45.74 percent during FY06-FY19 to reach 636.73 million in 2018-19. Overall wireless data usage in India grew 119.00 percent year-on-year to 17,940,576 terabytes between April-June 2019. The internet subscribers reached 665.31 million till June 2019. Further, India is also the world’s second-largest telecommunications market, the total telephone subscriber base, and teledensity reached 1,195.24 million and 90.52 percent, respectively, at the end of September 2019. Gross revenues of the telecom sector stood at Rs 61,535 crore (US$ 8.93 billion) during April-June 2019. Over the next five years, the rise in mobile-phone penetration and decline in data costs will add 500 million new internet users in India, creating opportunities for new businesses.

Investment/Major development in the Telecommunication Industry

With a daily increasing subscriber base, there have been a lot of investments and developments in the sector. FDI inflows into the telecom sector from April 2000 – June 2019 totalled to US$37.05 billion, according to the data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).

Some of the developments in the recent past are:

  • As per the report by Ericsson, India has the world’s highest data usage per smartphone at an average of 9.8GB per month.
  • As of August 2019, Jio’s IoT platform is ready to be commercially available from January 2020.
  • In August 2019, commercially launched Jio GigaFiber as wired broadband service.
  • During the first quarter of 2018, India became the world’s fastest-growing market for mobile applications. The country remained as the world’s fastest-growing market for Google Play downloads in the second and third quarter of 2018.
  • Bharti Airtel is planning to launch 6,000 new sites and 2,000 km of optical fiber in Gujarat in 2018-19.
  • Vodafone India and Idea Cellular have merged into ‘Vodafone Idea’ to become India’s largest telecom company, as of September 2018.

Government Initiatives to boost the growth of Telecommunication

The government has fast-tracked reforms in the telecom sector and continues to provide room for growth for telecom companies. Some of the other major initiatives taken by the government are as follows:

  • The Government of India will soon come out with a new National Telecom Policy 2018 instead of rapid technological advancement in the sector over the past few years. The policy has envisaged attracting investments worth US$ 100 billion in the sector by 2022.
  • The Department of Information Technology intends to set up over 1 million internet-enabled common service centres across India, as per the National e-Governance Plan.
  • FDI cap in the telecom sector has been increased to 100 percent from 74 percent; out of 100 percent, 49 percent will be done through the automatic route, and the rest will be done through the FIPB approval route.
  • FDI of up to 100 percent is permitted for infrastructure providers offering dark fiber, electronic mail, and voicemail.
  • The Government of India has introduced a Digital India programme under which all the sectors such as healthcare, retail, etc. will be connected through the internet.

Future Prospects for students and investors in Telecommunication

Revenues from the telecom equipment sector are expected to grow to US$ 26.38 billion by 2020. The number of internet subscribers in the country is expected to double by 2021 to 829 million, and overall IP traffic is expected to grow 4 fold at a CAGR of 30 percent by 2021. The Indian Government is planning to develop 100 smart city projects, where IoT would play a vital role in the development of those cities. The National Digital Communications Policy 2018 has envisaged attracting investments worth US$ 100 billion in the telecommunications sector by 2022. The Indian Mobile Value-Added Services (MVAS) industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 18.3 percent during the forecast period 2015–2020 and reach US$ 23.8 billion by 2020. App downloads in India are expected to increase to 18.11 billion in 2018F and 37.21 billion in 2022F.



India ranks third among the most attractive investment destinations for technology transactions in the world. Modern India has had a strong focus on science and technology, realizing that it is a key element of economic growth. India is among the topmost countries in the world in the field of scientific research, positioned as one of the top five nations in space exploration. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).

India is likely to take a leading role in launching satellites for the SAARC nations, generating revenue by offering its space facilities for use to other countries.

Market size

India ranks 6th position for scientific publications and ranks at 10th for patents, which included only resident applications. The total number of patent applications filed by scientists and inventors in India increased to 61,788 in FY19 (up to Dec 18) from 47,857 in FY18. India ranks 13th position at the Nature Index in 2017, based on counts of high-quality research outputs in natural sciences.India improved its rank on the Global Innovation Index for the second year consecutively. From being ranked at the 81st position in 2015, India improved its ranking to 66th in 2016 and further to 60th in 2017.The Government of India is extensively promoting research parks technology business incubators (TBIs) and (RPs), which would promote innovative ideas until they become commercial ventures. India is the world’s third-largest technology startup hub, incorporating 1,000 new companies in 2017.The engineering R&D and product development and market in India is forecasted to grow at a CAGR of 20.55 percent to reach US$ 45 billion by 2020 from US$ 28 billion in FY18.


With support from the government, considerable investment and development have been incurred in different sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, space research, and nuclear power through scientific research. For instance, India is gradually becoming self-reliant in nuclear technology.

  • As per the Government records, the number of Indian scientists coming back to India to pursue research opportunities has increased from 243 in 2007-2012 to 649 between 2012 and 2017. In the span of 5 years, 649 Indian scientists have returned to pursue research opportunities.
  • India’s space business to witness tremendous growth in the next five years, on the back of technology advancement, global space business opportunity, and a sharp rise in Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) satellite launch capability

Investment Scenario

  • GridRaster Inc, working in the virtual and augmented reality space, has raised US$ 2 million as seed funding, which will be used for marketing and product development.
  • India’s R&D investments forecasted to increase to US$ 94.06 billion in 2019 from an estimated US$ 86.24 billion in 2018

Government Initiatives

  • In February 2018, the Union Cabinet approved the implementation of the ‘Prime Minister Research Fellows (PMRF)’ scheme, which will promote the mission of development through innovation, at a total cost of Rs 1,650 crore (US$ 245.94 million) for a period of seven years beginning 2018-19.
  • In February 2018, Union Government of India announced a grant of Rs 1,000 crore (US$ 155.55 million) for the second phase of Impacting Research Innovation and Technology (IMPRINT), a fund created by the Department of Science and Technology and Ministry of Human Resource and Development.
  • The Government of India granted Atal Innovation Mission with US$ 24.84 million would boost the academicians, entrepreneurs, and researchers to work towards innovation.
  • In July 2018, Atal Innovation Mission, along with MyGov, launched the “Innovate India Platform” to provide a common point for all the innovation happening across India.

Future Prospects

India is aggressively working towards establishing itself as a leader in industrialization and technological development. Significant developments in the nuclear energy sector are likely as India looks to expand its nuclear capacity. Nanotechnology is expected to transform the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The agriculture sector is also likely to undergo a major revamp, with the government investing heavily for the technology-driven Green Revolution. The Government of India, through the Science, Technology, and Innovation (STI) Policy-2013 aspires to position India among the world’s top five scientific powers. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will launch its first Indian human mission by 2022.


Indian consumer durables market is broadly segregated into urban and rural markets and is attracting marketers from across the world. The sector comprises a large middle class, relatively large affluent class, and a small economically disadvantaged class. Global corporations view India as one of the key markets from where future growth is likely to emerge. The growth in India’s consumer market would be primarily driven by a favorable population composition and increasing disposable incomes.

Per capita GDP of India is expected to reach US$ 3,273.85 in 2023 from US$ 1,983 in 2012. The maximum consumer spending is likely to occur in food, housing, consumer durables, and transport and communication sectors.

Market Size

  • The growing purchasing power and the rising influence of social media have enabled Indian consumers to splurge on good things. The import of electronic goods reached US$ 53 billion in FY18.
  • Indian appliance and consumer electronics (ACE) market reached Rs 2.05 trillion (US$ 31.48 billion) in 2017. India is one of the largest growing electronics markets in the world. The Indian electronics market is expected to grow at 41 percent CAGR between 2017-20 to reach US$ 400 billion.
  • The television industry in India is estimated to have reached Rs 740 billion (US$ 10.59 billion) in CY2018 and projected to reach Rs 955 billion (US$ 13.66 billion) in CY2021.
  • As of FY18, the washing machine, refrigerator and air conditioner market in India was estimated around Rs 7,000 crore (US$ 1.09 billion), Rs 19,500 crore (US$ 3.03 billion) and Rs 20,000 crore (US$ 3.1 billion), respectively.
  • India’s smartphone market grew by 14.5 percent year-on-year with a shipment of 142.3 million units in 2018. India is expected to have 829 million smartphone users by 2022. In 2019, India was expected to manufacture around 302 million handsets.


According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, during April 2000 – June 2019, FDI inflows into the electronics sector stood at US$ 2.45 billion.

The following are some recent investments and developments in the Indian consumer market sector.

  • In November 2019, Nokia entered in partnership with Flipkart to enter the consumer durables market in India and plan to launch smart TVs.
  • In October 2019, Apple Inc. entered into an agreement with Maker Maxity mall, co-owned by Reliance Industries, to open its first company-owned iconic outlet in India.
  • In August 2019, Voltas Beko launched India’s first five-star washing machine.
  • In July 2019, Voltas Limited entered into a partnership with Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) to manufacture and sell 5-star rated Inverter Air Conditioners.
  • In April 2019, TCL Electronic announced its entry into the home appliances market in India.
  • Xiaomi became India’s largest brand network in the offline market, having a presence in over 790 cities in the country.
  • Bosch Home Appliances to invest US$ 111.96 million to expand in India.
  • The number of TV households and viewers in India reached 197 million, 835 million, respectively, in 2018.
  • According to the retail chains and brands, there is a 9-12 percent increase in the sales of consumer electronics in the Diwali season in October 2019.
  • The smartphone shipment witnessed a year-on-year growth of 9.3 percent in July-September 2019, with 46.6 million units shipped.
  • Consumer durables loans in India increased by 68.8 percent to Rs 5,445 crore (US$ 780 million) in September 2019.
  • Intex Technologies will invest around Rs 60 crore (US$ 9.27 million) in 2018 in technology software and Internet of Things (IoT) startups in India in order to create an ecosystem for its consumer appliances and mobile devices.
  • Micromax plans to invest US$ 89.25 million by 2020 for transforming itself into a consumer electronics company.
  • Haier announced an investment of Rs 3,000 crore (US$ 415.80 million) as it aims a two-fold increase in its revenue by 2020

Government Initiatives

  • National Policy on Electronics Policy was passed by the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology in February 2019.
  • The Union Cabinet has approved a new Consumer Protection Bill, Government of India, that will make the existing laws more productive with a broader scope.
  • The mobile phone industry in India expects that the Government of India’s boost to the production of battery chargers will result in setting up of 365 factories, thereby generating 800,000 jobs by 2025.
  • The Union Cabinet has approved incentives up to Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 1.47 billion) for investors by amending the M-SIPS scheme to further incentivise investments in the electronics sector, create employment opportunities and reduce dependence on imports by 2020.
  • The Government of India has allowed 100 percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) under the automatic route in Electronics Systems Design & Manufacturing sector. FDI into single-brand retail has been increased from 51 percent to 100 percent; the government is planning to hike the FDI limit in multi-brand retail to 51 percent.

Road ahead

Indian appliance and consumer electronics (ACE) market is expected to increase at a 9 percent CAGR to reach Rs 3.15 trillion (US$ 48.37 billion) in 2022. Demand growth is likely to accelerate with rising disposable incomes and easy access to credit. Increasing the electrification of rural areas and the wide usability of online sales would also aid growth in demand.


The question of why to choose Electronics and Communication Engineering courses and what makes it an ideal option often pops among the minds of young students. Well, to answer this, it is important to take a look at the figure provided by the Bureau of Labor of Statistics (BLS).

It is predicted that the jobs for engineers will grow by 7% from 2016 to 2026. Furthermore, it has also been found that employment in the ECE sector has amplified significantly in the last few years.

The reason behind this positive change of wind is the growing nexus between the electronics industry and digital technology. The application of ECE in fields, such as satellite and mobile communication, digital telecommunication, power electronics, etc. has created fantastic career options for Electronics and Communication engineers. Apart from this, manufacturing companies, Multinational Corporations (MNCs), research-based or industrial corporations, government authorities, aerospace manufacturing companies, consumer electronics manufacturing, healthcare tools manufacturing, Armed forces (Army/ Air Force/Navy), many others look for candidates with ECE background.

ECE engineers expertise in managing large-scale research, conceptualizing, designing, developing and testing of the electronic equipment used in latest communication devices and other handy technological equipment, such as smartphones, tablets, processors, smart wristwatches, smart LED TV’s, etc. has only led to the surge in their demand.

In a nutshell, one can say that the skills of ECE engineers in planning, executing the testing process, framing of the system layouts, and delivering the end product is an excellent way to enhance their market value. This means that as an aspiring student of ECE, candidates need to ensure they select the right course in Electronics & Communication Engineering, in which they have an interest and which offers better career options in the future


The Career Choices for Electronics & Communication Engineer Graduates

One cannot ignore the fact that a few years back, there was a sudden dip reported in the jobs for ECE engineers. Nevertheless, now the situation has altered to a great extent. In fact, according to a collective survey by ASSOCHAM and NEC Corp, the electronics market of India is predicted to reach $400 billion by the year 2020 at a 41% CAGR rate.

As far as remuneration in the field of Electronics & Communication Engineering is concerned, it is essential to note that there is no uniformity in this. It profusely depends on the designation of the individual and their skills.


Despite saying this, there is no qualm that Electronics and Communication Engineering is a promising growth-driven stream, and adequate knowledge in the field, when amalgamated with specific skill sets, qualifies the individual for a wide range of entry-level openings. Some of the important positions that ECE pass-outs can serve are listed below:

Job titles:

  • Electronics Engineer
  • Electronics Design & Development Engineer
  • Service Engineer
  • Software Analyst
  • Technical Director
  • Field Test Engineer
  • Senior Sales Manager
  • Network Planning Engineer
  • Customer Support Engineer
  • Electronics and Communications Consultant
  • Research & Development Software Engineer
  • Electronics Research Engineer.
  • Electronics Test Engineer.
  • Control Systems Engineer.
  • Design and Development Engineer, Electronic Systems.
  • Microelectronics Engineer.
  • Desktop Support Engineer

Why Study Electronics and Communication Engineering at SVCE?

  • The NBA has accredited the department since April 2002.
  • Recognized by Anna University, Chennai, as an approved research center for Ph.D. / MS (by Research) with effect from May 2009.
  • The major thrust areas of research are RF and Microwave Engineering Wireless Networks, Network Security, VLSI, Cognitive Radio, Image & Signal Processing, Neural Networks & Soft Computing, Embedded Systems & IoT, Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.
  • The department is doing a good number of consultancy work in the field of PCB Prototyping and RF measurements using Network Analyzer.
  • On average, over 75 companies visit for campus placements.
  • External Research grant of Rs 48.26 Lakhs received from ISRO and Cognizant technology solutions in the last three years for various projects.
  • Students actively participate in research projects related to wireless communications, networking, embedded systems, virtual surveillance, Robotics, drone, etc.
  • The department has signed over 10 MOUs with reputed companies in various aspects to ensure industry involvement for framing the syllabus under the autonomous regulation, towards motivating students to do industry projects, to enable students to undergo industrial visit, internship & in-plant training in their companies as applicable, to conduct various events (workshop, Value added courses, Industrial training to faculty, staff and students), for formulating/revising different educational objectives such as course outcomes(COs), PSOs, PEOs, etc., to satisfy the requirements of both institution and industry.






We can’t imagine the world without the existence of electronics and communication gadgets. At the same time, it is also challenging to find the functioning of any other domain area without the involvement of these gadgets. Electronics and Communication Engineering always plays a significant and crucial role in the development of current digital technology.   

It is not possible for everybody to understand engineering without having a fundamental idea about engineering studies and its different disciplines. Only when the students clearly understand the spread of current technology and the available job options, they can travel towards their destiny and attain the set goals without any greater obstructions. Hence, it is inevitable to know about the different job opportunities that are presently left available for Electronics and Communication Engineering graduates to grab and shine with a dream and super dream companies.  


One of the most common questions that arise among the minds of students who wish to study engineering is ‘why to choose Electronics and Communication Engineering, among other options that are available’?. There are many statistics that are obtained from both industry and other governmental organizations that substantially advocate for this division of engineering.  

Every year the job openings for ECE graduates grow significantly by 7% from 2016 to 2026. During the last few years, this branch of engineering has seen steady growth among other disciplines besides the ongoing recession. Both the electronics and the recent developments that happened in digital technology contribute to this growth.  

Its widespread applications in various other fields such as wireless mobile communication, telecommunication engineering, digital communication, satellite communication, VLSI, Cryptography and Network Security, Embedded Systems, Computer Networks, etc., makes this branch of engineering quite exciting and also ever-demanding among the students who wish to study engineering.  

The ECE graduates are always needed in all Multinational Corporations (MNCs) having a good market presence in consumer electronics, health care, aerospace, etc., besides considering the regular job openings from governmental departments, industry corporations, government research organizations, and Armed forces.   

Various technical skills that are acquired by ECE graduates would help them to create, design and develop everyday devices such as smartphones, Smart LED Televisions, Projectors, High-Resolution Cameras, Smart Wrist Watches, Musical Instruments, Laptops, Tablet PCs, Smart Speakers, etc., 

Electronic engineering always enables students to come out with innovations and developments in all related fields such as robotics, computing hardware, power and electrical equipment, control systems, automation, and microelectronics involving computer chips.   

Due to above-said reasons, there is always a shortage of electronics and communication engineers around the world, and the present situation is still likely to continue for the upcoming years as well by creating a massive surge in the demand for ECE engineers. 


Some of the major career choices that are applicable for ECE graduates are listed below: 

Electronics Engineering requires technical skills to design, develop, evaluate, and maintain electronic systems and components. Engineers who have good exposure to this field are much needed from small companies to larger corporations. Day-to-day activities may differ based on the company’s operations. Still, they are generally expected to design, plan, perform research, inspect the equipment, carry out assembling, attend conferences, and cooperate on matters of mutual concern with others. 


Employers look for communications engineers to help prepare and maintain communications systems. Expected duties do include designing, developing, installing, and testing system equipment and implementing procedures to make all components operational.  

Because of an ever-increasing demand for broadband services, ECE students pursue jobs in communications, networking, and broadcast transmission system work areas. This job is mainly targeted to consolidate electronics engineering, conceptualize the framework of a communication network, and ensure its flawless implementation and functioning by meeting the demands of customers. 


Normally Design engineers do research and develop ideas for new products; create systems that are used to make them. They are expected to do research, design, and test products in a variety of industries, ranging from electronics to textiles industry. They work on diverse projects such as the redesign of a mobile phone to the construction of Computer Chips. Thereby, Electronics design and development engineering is one of the most preferred career choices of ECE graduates who wish to have good prospects in electronic designing and development engineering involving embedded systems, Artificial Intelligence, Neural Networks, VLSI, Micro Electronics, etc.,  


The profile of a System Support Engineer is required in both IT and non-IT companies. This means there will be no scarcity of job options for ECE graduates in this position. For those with more of an interest in the operation and maintenance of computer networks and other information systems, a career in systems administration could be the right fit.  

Computer systems administrators discuss with management to finalize what equipment and functionality are required. They perform other vital activities that include installing equipment, running performance tests, troubleshooting issues, making repairs, and setting up new user access. 

Obtaining certification offered by software and computer product vendors may provide an advantage when looking for a job.  


The system control engineer job includes not only the designing of complicated electronic systems but also testing of it. This is one reason why the candidates for this profile are recruited as technical supervisors, system control managers, etc. 


Microelectronics is a major subdivision of electronics engineering, which mainly focuses on the design of small electronic parts like semiconductors, circuit boards, and microchips that are used in the design of biomedical, electronic, aerospace, and information technologies devices and systems.  

Microelectronic engineers construct prototypes of new designs, perform specialized tests, and record and interpret data on the performance of new models. 

Some of the important job titles that ECE pass-outs can serve are listed below: 

Job titles: 

  • Electronics Engineer 
  • Electronics Design & Development Engineer 
  • Software Analyst 
  • Technical Director 
  • Field Test Engineer 
  • Senior Sales Manager 
  • Network Planning Engineer 
  • Customer Support Engineer 
  • Electronics and Communications Consultant 
  • Research & Development Software Engineer 
  • Electronics Research Engineer 
  • RF Engineer 
  • Electronics Test Engineer 
  • Control Systems Engineer 
  • Design and Development Engineer, Electronic Systems. 
  • Microelectronics Engineer 
  • Desktop Support Engineer 
  • Service Engineer 


With a daily increasing subscriber base, there have been a lot of investments and developments in the sector. FDI inflows into the telecom sector from April 2000 – June 2019 totalled to US$37.05 billion, according to the data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT). 

Some of the developments in the recent past are: 

  • As per the report by Ericsson, India has the world’s highest data usage per smartphone at an average of 9.8GB per month. 
  • As of August 2019, Jio’sIoT platform is ready to be commercially available from January 2020. 
  • In August 2019, commercially launched JioGigaFiber as a wired broadband service. 
  • During the first quarter of 2018, India became the world’s fastest-growing market for mobile applications. The country remained as the world’s fastest-growing market for Google Play downloads in the second and third quarter of 2018.                
  • Bharti Airtel is planning to launch 6,000 new sites and 2,000 km of optical fiber in Gujarat in 2018-19. 
  • Vodafone India and Idea Cellular have merged into ‘Vodafone Idea’ to become India’s largest telecom company, as of September 2018.


With support from the government, considerable investment and development have been incurred in different sectors such as agriculture, healthcare, space research, and nuclear power through scientific research. For instance, India is gradually becoming self-reliant in nuclear technology. 

  • As per the Government records, the number of Indian scientists coming back to India to pursue research opportunities has increased from 243 in 2007-2012 to 649 between 2012 and 2017. Within 5 years, around 649 Indian scientists have returned to pursue research opportunities. 
  • India’s space business is predicted to witness a tremendous growth within the next five years, on the back of technology advancement, global space business opportunity and a sharp rise in Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) satellite launch capability. 
  • GridRasterInc, working in the virtual and augmented reality space, has raised US$ 2 million as seed funding, which will be used for marketing and product development. 
  • India’s R&D investments are forecasted to increase to US$94.06 billion in 2019 from an estimated US$86.24 billion in 2018. 


According to the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, during April 2000 – June 2019, FDI inflows into the electronics sector stood at US$2.45 billion. 

The following are some recent investments and developments in the Indian consumer market sector. 

  • In November 2019, Nokia entered in partnership with Flipkart to enter the consumer durables market in India and plan to launch smart TVs. 
  • In October 2019, Apple Inc. entered into an agreement with Maker Maxity mall, co-owned by Reliance Industries, to open its first company-owned iconic outlet in India. 
  • In August 2019, Voltas Beko launched India’s first five-star washing machine. 
  • In July 2019, Voltas Limited entered into a partnership with Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) to manufacture and sell 5-star rated Inverter Air Conditioners. 
  • In April 2019, TCL Electronic announced its entry into the home appliances market in India. 
  • Xiaomi became India’s largest brand network in the offline market, having a presence in over 790 cities in the country. 
  • Bosch Home Appliances to invest US$ 111.96 million to expand in India. 
  • The number of TV households and viewers in India reached 197 million, 835 million, respectively, in 2018. 
  • According to the retail chains and brands, there is a 9-12 percent increase in the sales of consumer electronics in the Diwali season in October 2019. 
  • The smartphone shipment witnessed a year-on-year growth of 9.3 percent in July-September 2019, with 46.6 million units shipped. 
  • Consumer durables loans in India increased by 68.8 percent to Rs 5,445 crore (US$780 million) in September 2019. 
  • Intex Technologies will invest around Rs 60 crore (US$9.27 million) in 2018 in technology software and Internet of Things (IoT) startups in India in order to create an ecosystem for its consumer appliances and mobile devices. 
  • Micromax plans to invest US$ 89.25 million by 2020 for transforming itself into a consumer electronics company. 
  • Haier announced an investment of Rs 3,000 crore (US$415.80 million) as it aims a two-fold increase in its revenue by 2020. 

Due to the investments mentioned above and development scenario, one can see that electronics are a part of our everyday life, and the ECE field shows no signs of slowing down. This is quite encouraging for students who wish to study ECE, as it always ensures abundant opportunities for them in leading companies.  

The only thing that one needs to do is to select the right institution to study and determine their Electronics and Communication Engineering scope in future 


  • The NBA has accredited the department since April 2002.  
  • Recognized by Anna University, Chennai, as an approved research center for Ph.D.and MS (by Research) with effect from May 2009.   
  • The major thrust areas of research are RF and Microwave Engineering Wireless Networks, Network Security, VLSI, Cognitive Radio, Image & Signal Processing, Neural Networks & Soft Computing, Embedded Systems &IoT, Robotics, and Artificial Intelligence.  
  • The department is doing a good number of consultancy work in the field of PCB Prototyping and RF measurements using Network Analyzer.   
  • On average over 75 companies visits for campus placements.   
  • External Research grant of Rs 48.26 Lakhs received from ISRO and Cognizant technology solutions in the last three years for various projects.  
  • Students actively participate in research projects related to wireless communications, networking, embedded systems, virtual surveillance, Robotics, drone, etc.   
  • The department has signed over 10 MOUs with reputed companies in various aspects, mainly to ensure the following listed points.   
  • To ensure industry involvement for framing the syllabus under the autonomous regulation.  
  • Towards motivating students to do industry projects. 
  • To enable students to undergo industrial visits, internship & in-plant training in their companies as applicable.  
  • To conduct various events (workshop, Value added courses, Industrial training to faculty, staff, and students) 
  • For planning/revising various educational objectives such as course outcomes(COs), Programme Specific Outcomes (PSOs), Programme Educational Objectives (PEOs), etc., to satisfy the requirements of both institution and industry. 

Hence, it is always better to choose Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering (SVCE), Sriperumbudur which helps you to travel in the path of success towards reaching your career goals, as this is the only destination which guarantees the best campus placements / higher studies or venturing with your own business entity. 

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