The purpose of this tale is to provide details about biomedical applications of nanoparticles (NPs) and their toxicology scrutiny to help readers quantify and qualify the toxicity of the drug products incorporating nanotechnology features.
Nano-technology in Medical applications
- Drug delivery & Potential Therapies (Cancer & HIV) – The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: efficient encapsulation of the drugs, successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and successful release of the drug.
- Imaging – Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal.
- Sensing – Sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells. It enables the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages from a few drops of a patient’s blood.
- Tissue engineering – Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications
- Medical devices – Using nano devices enables computers to linked to the nervous system for sensing purposes.
Toxicity of nanomaterials
- The production, use, and disposal of prepared NPs lead to discharges into air, soils, and aquatic systems.
- Therefore, it is crucial to investigate their transport into the environment and their impacts on human health.
- The indiscriminate use of engineered NPs with unknown toxicological properties might pose a variety of hazards for environment, wildlife, and human health.
Types of toxicity
- NPs enters the human system via Mucociliary movement, oral intake of food, cosmetics, drugs & drug delivery system in nano scale
- NPs primarily target the respiratory organs & gastrointestinal tract.
- They first interact with biological components like proteins & cells.
- A lot of NPs to the environment, lead to nano particle pollution, by deposition of NPs in ground water & soil.
- It also affects the ecosystem. Ex; toxicity of fullerene -C60 in aquatic species, increased LPO in gills.
- The effects of NPs on plants and microbes are also rare.
Toxicity of nanoparticles depends on;
✔ Nature of chemical used for the synthesis
✔ Type of precursor
✔ Concentration of precursor
✔ Duration of exposure
✔ Personal susceptibility
✔ Mode of entry
✔ Size of nano particle
✔ Environmental factors
✔ Threshold value.
NANOPARTICLE ENTRY ROUTES INTO HUMANS
The nano particle ranges between 1 nm to 100 nm, enters into the human body through inhalation, skin contact & ingestion.
1. Most important route for the intake of airborne nano particle.
2. Depending on the size, particles are trapped in mucous layer and 0.1 nm size particles are exhaled.
3. Less than 7.0, deposit deep inside the lungs.
4. Less than 0.1 deposits in the alveolus.
5. The inhaled material may alter the deposition of particles and may remain permanently within the lung tissues.
1. The penetration of nanoparticles through skin occurs via lipids and dissolved material.
2. It causes exposure of nanoparticles through skin absorption.
3. Lipid solubility & molecular size are the most important factors.
4. Higher lipid solubility & small molecular size enhance NPs transformation towards body.
1. Compared with inhalation & skin absorption, ingestion plays a minor role in the absorption of toxic materials in industries.
2. Toxic materials that are soluble in body fluids are absorbed in the digestive system & circulated by the blood.
3. During the process of synthesis contaminated objects may entered into the mouth.
4. Insoluble toxic nano dust by while swallowed with food or saliva affects body functioning.
Mechanisms of toxicity
1. Oxidative stress: The greater chemical reactivity of nanomaterials can result in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. ROS and free radical production is one of the primary mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity; it may result in oxidative stress, inflammation, and consequent damage to proteins, membranes and DNA.
2. Cytotoxicity : A primary marker for the damaging effects of NPs has been cell viability as determined by state and exposed surface area of the cell membrane. NPs have been found to induce apoptosis in certain cells primarily due to the mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress brought on by the foreign NPs electrostatic reactions.
3. Genotoxicity : Metal and metal oxide NPs such as silver, zinc, copper oxide, uraninite, and cobalt oxide have also been found to cause DNA damage. The damage done to the DNA will often result in mutated cells and colonies as found with the HPRT gene test.
✔ Organ failure
✔ Tissue damage
✔ ROS generation
✔ DNA damage
✔ Increase of Lipid peroxidation level
✔ Increase in expression of genes
✔ Decreases the rate of aerobic respiration
Reasons for toxicity
- Increased in the surface area to volume ratio.
- Chemical composition of the particles.
- Surface change of the particles.
- Hydrophobicity & lipophilic groups.
- Complementarity of nanostructures.
- Accumulation of innert particles in the body.
Although current toxicity testing protocols may be applied to identify harmful effects of NPs, research into new methods is required to address the special properties of nanomaterials. It is crucially important to assess their safety for sustainable implementation of nanotechnology with its full potential.
Nanomedcine and nanotoxicology are like the two sides of the coin, the worth this coin depends on its prudent use.
Dr. S. Ananda Babu
Department of Applied Chemistry
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Pennalur, Sriperumbudur Tk 602 117
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The sensors included in wearable devices depend entirely on the function and design of the device. IoT has become a big deal with sensor development as it spreads rapidly to science, industry, and even daily life. This folio discusses the role of IoT in modern materials chemists look into the trends in this field. It aims to form realistic knowledge that can be used in actual research field through theory and practice focused on ChemIoT.
Vital signs are used to measure the body’s basic functions. These measurements are taken to assess the general physical health of a person, giving clues to possible diseases and to show progress towards recovery.
There are four primary vital signs;
- Body temperature
- Blood pressure
- Pulse (heart rate)
- Breathing rate (respiratory rate)
However, depending on the clinical setting, the vital signs may include other measurements called the “fifth vital sign” or “sixth vital sign”. Vital signs are recorded using the sensors constructed based on metal, metal oxide, polymers and its composites. The technology revolution in the miniaturization of electronic devices is enabling to design more reliable and adaptable wearables, contributing for a world-wide change in the health monitoring approach. The next part discusses each of these signs, in terms of signal origin, medical and health importance, wearable sensors technology state-of-the-art.
- Temperature sensing devices: The most recent examples of flexible temperature sensors are first discussed with regard to their materials, structures, electrical and mechanical properties; temperature sensing network technologies in new materials and structural designs are then presented based on platforms comprising of multiple physical sensors and stretchable electronics.
- Blood pressure sensing devices: Blood Pressure can be measured both by invasive and non-invasive methods. In the non-invasive method, no piercing is required and is used easily. Blood Pressure Sensor is used to measure the blood pressure using the non-invasive method. It is similar to sphygmomanometer but instead of the mercury column, a pressure sensor is used to detect the blood pressure.
- Respiratory rate monitoring devices: Monitoring respiration rate is an important task while evaluating a subject’s health. Respiration rate monitoring devices can be classified by a number of ways depending on the manner of their use and their operation. There is an ever-growing demand for measuring respiratory variables during a variety of applications, including monitoring in clinical and occupational settings, and during sporting activities and exercise.
- Pulse or heart rate sensing devices: The preliminary research constructs the heart beat or pulse measurement for medical devices. The research prototype focuses the pulse rate and analysis system which consists of hardware and software parts.
- Blood oxygen saturation sensing devices: Lack of oxygen, commonly termed as hypoxia, is frequently encountered in different disease states and is detrimental to human life. However, at the end of the 19th century, Paul Bert and James Lorrain Smith identified what is known as oxygen toxicity. The molecular basis of this phenomenon is oxygen’s readiness to accept electrons and to form different variants of aggressive radicals that interfere with normal cell functions.
- Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) sensing devices: A number of different techniques for body composition assessment have been developed, from very simple indirect measures such as waist-to-hip ratio and calipers to sophisticated direct volumetric measurements based on three-dimensional imaging techniques. There are also a range of invasive or in vitro methods for body composition analysis such as inhalation or injection of water-accumulating or fat-accumulating agents, or dissection and chemical analysis of cadavers.
- Pain sensing devices: Facial expressions are among behavioural signs of pain that can be employed as an entry point to develop an automatic human pain assessment tool. Such a tool can be an alternative to the self-report method and particularly serve patients who are unable to self-report like patients in the intensive care unit and minors. A wearable device with a biosensing facial mask is proposed to monitor pain intensity of a patient by utilizing facial surface electromyogram. The wearable device works as a wireless sensor node and is integrated into an Internet of Things system for remote pain monitoring.
The Internet of Chemical Things is perched to alter further research for the better sensor developments. We believe it is time to protect our precious human resource by allowing our materials to assist sensor for our future biomedical development. In the next few years chemistry will change in the ways outlined.
Dr. S. Ananda Babu
Department of Applied Chemistry
Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is an academic program that integrates the field of Computer Engineering and Computer Science. The program, which emphasizes the basics of computer programming and logical thinking, comprises a plethora of topics. The topics are related to computation, algorithms, programming languages, program design, computer software, computer hardware, etc.
Computer science engineering jobs include many aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers to circuit designing and writing software through logical thinking that powers them.
Information technology (IT), in today’s world Information Technology (IT), has become the most fundamental need for the proper functioning of human society. Be it running the banks or getting food from an eatery home-delivered; Information Technology has become part and parcel of our lives. This dependence on Information Technology has given rise to the demand for learning and further innovation in this field. As a result, it has become one of the most popular areas in education and career. You can find IT specialization in every branch of education, from IT & Software, Engineering, Aviation and Medicine to MBA and even Hospitality. In such a scenario, a career in IT sector is the most relevant and financially rewarding path to follow for students.
Indian IT and ITES Industry
The global sourcing market in India continues to grow at a higher pace compared to the IT-BPM industry. India is the leading sourcing destination across the world, accounting for approximately 55 percent market share of the US$ 185-190 billion global services sourcing business in 2017-18. Indian IT & ITeS companies have set up over 1,000 global delivery centers in about 80 countries across the world.
India has become the digital capabilities hub of the world, with around 75 percent of global digital talent present in the country.
The IT-BPM sector in India stood at US$177 billion in 2019, witnessing a growth of 6.1 percent year-on-year and is estimated that the size of the industry will grow to US$ 350 billion by 2025. India’s IT & ITeS industry grew to US$ 181 billion in 2018-19. Exports from the industry increased to US$ 137 billion in FY19, while domestic revenues (including hardware) advanced to US$ 44 billion. The IT industry employs 4.1 million people as of FY19.
Spending on information technology in India is expected to reach US$ 90 billion in 2019.
Revenue from the digital segment is expected to comprise 38 percent of the forecasted US$ 350 billion industry revenue by 2025.
Indian IT’s core competencies and strengths have attracted significant investments from major countries. The computer software and hardware sector in India attracted cumulative Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows worth US$ 39.47 billion between April 2000 and June 2019. It ranks second in an inflow of FDI, as per data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
Leading Indian IT firms like Google, Amazon, Zoho, Infosys, Wipro, TCS, and Tech Mahindra, are diversifying their offerings and showcasing leading ideas in blockchain, artificial intelligence to clients. They are using innovation hubs, research, and development centers to create differentiated offerings.
Some of the major developments in the Indian IT and ITeS sector are as follows:
- The total export revenue of the industry is expected to grow 8.3 percent year-on-year to US$ 136 billion in FY19.
- UK-based tech consultancy firm, Contino, has been acquired by Cognizant.
- In May 2019, Infosys acquired a 75 percent stake in ABN AMRO Bank’s subsidiary Stater for US$ 143.08 million
- In June 2019, Mindtree was acquired by L&T.
- Nasscom has launched an online platform that is aimed at up-skilling over 2 million technology professionals and skilling another 2 million potential employees and students.
- Revenue growth in the BFSI vertical stood at 6.80 percent y-o-y between July-September 2018.
- As of March 2018, there were over 1,140 GICs operating out of India.
- PE investments in the sector stood at US$ 2,400 million in Q4 2018.
Some of the major initiatives taken by the government to promote the IT and ITeS sector in India are as follows:
- In May 2019, the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) launched theMeitYStartup Hub (MSH) portal.
- In February 2019, the Government of India released the National Policy on Software Products 2019 to develop India as a software product nation
- The government has identified Information Technology as one of 12 champion service sectors for which an action plan is being developed. Also, the government has set up a Rs 5,000 crore (US$ 745.82 million) fund for realizing the potential of these champion service sectors.
- As a part of Union Budget 2018-19, NITI Aayog is going to set up a national-level program that will enable efforts in AI^ and will help in leveraging AI^ technology for development works in the country.
- In the Interim Budget 2019-20, the Government of India announced plans to launch a national program on AI* and setting up of a National AI* portal.
- National Policy on Software Products-2019 was passed by the Union Cabinet to develop India as a software product nation.
Following are the achievements of the government during 2017-18:
- About 200 Indian IT firms are present in around 80 countries.
- IT exports from India are expected to reach the highest ever mark of US$ 137billionof of revenues in FY19 growing at 8.3 percent.
- Revenue of GICs is expected to touch US$ 50 billion by 2025.
- Indian IT firms generated the highest ever revenue at US$ 181 billion in 2018-19.
India is the leading offshoring destination for IT companies across the world. Having proven its capabilities in delivering both on-shore and offshore services to global clients, emerging technologies now offer an entire new gamut of opportunities for top IT firms in India. Export revenue of the industry is expected to grow 7-9 percent year-on-year to US$ 135-137 billion in FY19. The industry is expected to grow to US$ 350 billion by 2025, and BPM is expected to account for US$ 50-55 billion out of the total revenue.
Career in the IT sector
India is considered the hub of IT education, with over 4000 institutes and colleges offering various courses at undergraduate, postgraduate, doctoral, and certificate level. Besides, it is a known fact that almost all the top global IT companies have a sizable number of Indian IT graduates working in various capacities. In fact, the USA accounts for more than 60% of Indian IT professionals.
Information Technology courses are taught at both UG and PG degree levels. Various institutions in India also offer short-term courses like IT diplomas and certifications.
What media is mentioning in the news?
Indian tech industry facing biggest-ever HR challenge needs to recruit, skill two mn professionals:
The Economic Times
The increasing competition has not left organizations with much of an alternative. They have to either embrace the challenge or perish, according to the report titled ‘AI & Future Of Work: Redefining Future Of Enterprise.’ Employability with technology continues to be a problem despite India having a large number of higher academic institutions.
The Indian technology industry is facing its biggest-ever HR challenge with the need to recruit and skill more than 2 million professionals, as growing demand for ‘exponential tech professionals’ puts extreme pressure on it to remain globally competitive, according to a report.
Employability with technology continues to be a problem despite India having a large number of higher academic institutions, it added.
“There is an expected supply of 7 million people for the Indian technology industry that consists of graduates, PGs (postgraduates), diploma holders and PhDs (but) overall employability is 18 percent only,” the report said.
On the other hand, it said, “Several jobs at the mid-level of Indian technology companies are becoming redundant or changing dynamically. Massive re-skilling in exponential technologies required swiftly.”
- Cloud Computing
- Artificial Intelligence & Data Science
- Machine Learning and Deep Learning
- Natural Language Processing
- Cyber Security
- Analytical Reasoning
- UX Design
- Mobile Application Development
- Social Media Marketing
- Scientific Computing
- Game Development
Now let us go through them one by one.
Cloud Computing is a term where anything or everything is provided as a service over the Internet. These are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol.
A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that make it different from traditional web hosting. It is sold on demand, mainly by the minute or the hour, it is flexible as a user can have as much or as little of a service as they need at any given time, and the service is only managed by the provider.
A cloud may be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone who wants its services. Presently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider. A private cloud is a network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a handful number of people. Private or public, the main aim of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computer resources and IT services.
Cloud Computing Characteristics and Benefits:
- Self Service Provisioning: End users can use compute resources for almost any type of workload on demand. This eliminates the need for IT administrators to provide and manage compute resources.
- Elasticity: Corporations can scale up as computing needs increase and scale down again as demands decrease. This eliminates the need for massive investments in the infrastructure.
- Pay per use: Compute resources are measured at a granular level, enabling users to pay only for the resources and workloads they use.
- Workload resilience: Cloud service providers typically implement most occurring resources to keep storage and to keep important workloads of user’s running often across multiple global regions.
- Migration flexibility: Organizations will move certain workloads to or from the cloud or to different cloud platforms as desired for better cost savings or to use new services as they emerge.
Types of Cloud Computing Services
Cloud computing has changed over time, it has been divided into three different service categories: infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS).
IaaS providers supply a virtual server instance and storage, and APIs that enable users to migrate workloads to a VM. Users have a fixed storage capacity and can start, stop, access and configure the VM and storage as we desire. IaaS providers offer small, medium, large clouds in addition to customized instances, for various workload needs.
In the PaaS model, cloud suppliers host development tools on their infrastructures. Users access these tools over the internet using web portals or gateway software. PaaS is used for general software development, and many PaaS suppliers host the software after it’s developed. PaaS providers include Salesforce, AWS Elastic Beanstalk and Google App Engine.
SaaS is a distribution model that delivers software applications across the internet; these applications are called web services. Users will access SaaS applications and services from any location using a computer or mobile device that has internet connection. Most common example of a SaaS application is Microsoft Office 365 for productivity and email services.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE and DATA SCIENCE
John McCarthy, who named the term in 1956 and defines it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
Some other names for the field have been proposed, which are computational intelligence, synthetic intelligence or computational rationality.
Artificial intelligence is also used to describe a property of machines or programs which is the intelligence that the system demonstrates. Artificial Intelligence research uses tools and information from many fields, including computer science, psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, probability, optimization and logic.
Artificial Intelligence analysis also overlaps with tasks such as robotics, control systems, data mining, logistics, speech recognition, facial recognition and many other tasks. Learning of the machine is based on empirical data and is associated with non-symbolic AI, scruffy AI and soft computing.
Application of AI
Gaming: AI plays a major role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machines have to think of a large number of possible positions.
Natural Language Processing: It has now been made possible to interact with the computer that understands the language spoken by humans.
Expert Systems: There are some special applications that integrate machines, software, and special data to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanations and recommendations to the users.
Vision Systems: These are the systems that understand, observe, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,oA spying airplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. nowadays, Doctors use the clinical expert system to diagnose the patient. police using computer software that is able to recognize the face of a criminal with the stored portrait created by a forensic artist.
Speech Recognition: Some intelligent systems have the capability of hearing and understanding the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It will still recognize your voice if you use different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human noise due to cold, etc.
Handwriting Recognition: The handwriting recognition software reads the text which is written on paper by a pen or on the screen by a stylus. It is also able to recognize the shapes of the letters and convert them into editable text.
Intelligent Robots: Robots are made intelligent enough to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors located inside them to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have highly efficient processors, multiple sensors, and huge amounts of memory, to exhibit intelligence. They are also capable of learning from their mistakes and can easily adapt to the new environment.
Data science is a blend of data inference, algorithm development, and technology to solve analytically complex problems which arise in day to day situations. The ultimate goal of Data Science is to use this data in creative ways to generate business value.
MACHINE LEARNING and DEEP LEARNING
Machine Learning is mainly based on algorithms and they are a sequence of instructions used to solve a problem. Algorithms are developed by programmers to instruct computers in new tasks and are the building blocks of the advanced digital world which we are seeing today. Computer algorithms can organize a large amount of data into information and services that are based on certain instructions and rules.
Instead of programming the computer every step of the way, this approach offers the computer directions that allow it to learn from data without new instructions at each step by the programmer. This means that computers can be used for new, complicated tasks that were not possible to program manually. Tasks like photo recognition applications for the visually impaired or the task of translating pictures into speech.
The basic process of machine learning is to give the data which is acquired during training to a learning algorithm. The learning algorithm then generates a new set of rules, based on inferences from the data. By using different types of training data, the same learning algorithm can be used to generate different types of models. For e.g. this type of learning algorithm could be used to teach the computer how to translate different languages or predict the stock market.
Deep learning is a part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on artificial neural networks with representation learning. Deep learning architectures such as deep neural networks, deep belief networks, recurrent neural networks, convolutional neural networks, have been applied to fields including computer vision, speech recognition, Natural Language Processing, AR and VR etc. where they have produced results comparable to and in some cases surpassing human expert performance.
How Machines Learn?
Supervised learning: The learning algorithm is given a set of data which is labelled and the desired output. For e.g., pictures of dogs labelled “dog” will help the algorithm identify the rules to classify pictures of dogs.
Unsupervised learning: The data given to the learning algorithm is not labelled, and the algorithm is asked to search for patterns in the input data. For e.g., the recommendation system of an e-commerce website where the learning algorithm discovers similar items often bought together.
Reinforcement learning: The algorithm interacts with a dynamic environment and keeps learning from experience and provides feedback. For e.g., self-driving cars.
The current growth in Artificial Intelligence and machine learning is tied to developments in three important areas
Data availability: We can say that over 3 billion people are online with around 17 billion connected devices or sensors, which generate a large amount of data which when combined with decreasing costs of data storage, can be easily available for use. Machine learning can use this as training data for learning algorithms and hence making new rules to perform increasingly complex tasks.
Computing power: Powerful computers and their ability to connect remote processing power through the Internet and make it possible for machine learning techniques to process these huge amounts of data.
Algorithmic innovation: These new machine learning techniques, specifically in neural networks which is also known as “deep learning” have inspired new services, but are also making investments and research in other parts of the field.
Social and Economic Impact: It is predicted that Artificial Intelligence technologies will bring economic changes which will result in an increase in productivity. This includes the use of machines that will be able to perform new tasks, such as self-driving cars, advanced robots or smart assistants to support people in their daily lives.
Cybersecurity, an evolving information technology security field mainly focuses on the protection of computers and data from unintended and unauthorized users. There is a heavy demand for the cybersecurity analyst jobs in the wings of the army, police, and software companies. In the current era as the information and data is being hacked, the role of the cybersecurity professionals is going to be extremely challenging.
Block chain, distributed or digital ledger mainly for recording the details of financial and non financial transactions. It is a combination of cryptography, programming and networking technologies which makes a revolution in the field of information registration and distribution for making a trustable digital relationship.
NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING
NLP is a combination of three Technologies such as machine learning ,Artificial Intelligence and linguistics to talk to machines, as if they were humans .These Technologies empowers the chatbot Google search engine ,Amazon’s Alexa ,Siri of Apple and Google translator in the business worlde.It harness the unstructured data, acts as personal digital assistant and helps to make an effective analytical decision.
Computer graphics is the production of images on computers which can be used in any medium. Images that are used in the graphic design are often produced on computers, as well as the still and moving images we see in animations. The real life images seen in electronic games and computer simulations would not have been created or supported without the enhanced capabilities of modern day computer graphics.
Computer graphics are also important for scientific visualization, a part of computer graphics that uses images and colours to model complex phenomena such as air currents and electric fields, in which objects are drawn on a computer and analyzed in computer programs. Even the windows-based graphical user interface, which is a common means of interacting with a lot of computer programs, is associated with computer graphics.
User experience (UX) design is the process of creating products that provides us with meaningful and relevant experiences to the users. This involves the design of the entire process of acquiring the product and including aspects of branding, design, usability, and function.
User Experience Design is usually associated with terms like User Interface Design and Usability, Usability and User Interface Design are important aspects of UX Design. A UX designer is concerned with the entire process of acquiring and integrating a product which includes aspects of branding, design, usability and function.
UX designers don’t just focus on creating products that are usable; they concentrate on other aspects of the user experience, such as pleasure, efficiency and fun, too.
MOBILE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
Mobile application development is the process by which a mobile application is developed for mobile devices.
The difference between a good application and a bad application is usually because of the quality of its user experience (UX). A good UX design is what separates successful apps from unsuccessful ones. Nowadays, mobile users expect a lot from an application such as fast loading time, ease of use and delight during an interaction. If you want your application to be successful, you have to consider UX to be not just a small aspect of design, but an essential part of product strategy.
What to work on in Mobile Development?
Minimize Cognitive Load: Cognitive load here refers to the amount of brain power required to use the application. The human brain has a limited amount of processing power, so you should keep in mind to not provide too much information at once, it might overwhelm the user and make them abandon the task.
- Decluttering: Clutter is one of the worst enemies of good design. By cluttering your interface, you overload users with a lot of information: Every added button, image and icon makes the screen more complicated, so make sure to keep it simple. Clutter is terrible on desktop, but it is more worse on mobile .It’s essential to get rid of anything in a mobile design that is not necessary because reducing clutter will improve comprehension.
- Offload Tasks: We look for anything in the design that requires user effort, and look for other alternatives. For example, in some cases you can reuse previously entered data instead of asking the user to type again, or use already available information.
- Familiar Screens: Familiar screens are those screens which the users see in many apps. Screens such as “Getting started,” “What’s new” and “Search results” have become standards for mobile applications. They do not require additional explanation because these features are known to the users. This allows users to use prior experience to interact with the application, with no learning curve.
- Anticipate User’s Needs: We look for steps in the user journey where users might need help.
- Avoid Jargon: Clear communication should always be a top most priority in any mobile application. Use what you know about the audience you are targeting to determine whether certain words or phrases are appropriate.
- Make the Design Consistent: Consistency is a fundamental principle of design. Consistency eliminates confusion. Maintaining an overall consistent appearance throughout an application is essential.
SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING
Social media marketing is the most powerful way for businesses to reach prospects and customers. The customers are already interacting with brands via social media, and if you do not speak directly to your audience through social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest, you’re missing out the opportunity to promote your product. Good marketing is the main element of social media marketing and can bring success to your business.
Social media marketing, or SMM, is a type of internet marketing that involves creating and sharing your content on social media in order to achieve the marketing goals set by your corporation. Social media marketing includes activities like posting text and uploading images or videos, and other content that keeps the audience engaged, as well as paid social media advertising.
Social Media Marketing can help meet a number of goals, such as:
- SMM can help in increasing the website traffic
- SMM can help in building conversions
- Raising brand awareness of a product
- To create a brand identity and positive brand association
- Improving communication and interaction with the key audiences
Scientific Computing is the collection of tools, techniques, and theories which are required to be solved on a computer.
Most of these tools, techniques, and theories were originally developed in Mathematics and many of them come long before the introduction of electronic computers.
This set of mathematical theories and techniques is called Numerical Analysis and constitutes a major part of scientific computing.
Many of the numerical methods that had been developed for the purpose of hand calculation had to be revised and sometimes abandoned. Considerations that were irrelevant or unimportant for hand calculation now became of utmost importance for the efficient and correct use of a large Computer System.
Many of these considerations such as programming languages, operating systems, management of large quantities of data, correctness of programs all were put under the new discipline of Computer Science, on which scientific computing now heavily depends. Mathematics still continues to play a vital role in scientific computing because it provides the language for the mathematical models that are solved and information about the availability of a model and it provides the theoretical foundation for the numerical strategies and, increasingly, many of the tools from computer science.
VIDEO GAME DEVELOPMENT
Video game development is the field that consists of many aspects involved in creating a video game. Every video game needs a concept, storyline, graphic design and to make the public release of the product.
Video game development is a very vast field; it is a combination of game production and game design and requires skills from both fields forming the core of a video game developer’s knowledge.
A video game developer usually holds a big position in the creation of a video game, who guides the project through multiple phases.
A video game developer is a mixture of a producer and a programmer, they are coordinating administrators with a great vision who also possess the technical skill to overcome and they also contribute to software engineering, editing and other aspects of game design.
Roles of a Development Team
- Game Producer
- Game Artist
- Graphic Designer
- Creative Writer
- Storyline Editor
- Audio Specialist
- Level Designer
In India, the computer science engineering scope is increasing day by day. Let’s know more about the job roles and responsibilities of computer engineers.
Software developers create software programs that allow users to perform specific tasks on various devices, such as computers or mobile devices. They are responsible for the entire development, testing, and maintenance of software.
Software developers must have the technical creativity required to solve problems uniquely. They need to be fluent in the computer languages that are used to write the code for programs.
Communication skills are vital for securing the necessary information and insight from end users about how the software is functioning.
Database administrators analyze and evaluate the data needs of users. They develop and improve the data resources used to store and retrieve critical information.
They need the problem-solving skills of the computer science major to correct any malfunctions in databases and to modify systems in line with the evolving needs of users.
Computer Hardware Engineer
Computer hardware engineers are responsible for designing, developing, and testing computer components, such as circuit boards, routers, and memory devices.
Computer hardware engineers need a combination of creativity and technical expertise. They must be avid learners who stay on top of emerging trends in the field to create hardware that can accommodate the latest programs and applications.
Computer hardware engineers must have the perseverance to perform comprehensive tests of systems, again and again, to ensure the hardware is functioning as it should.
Computer Systems Analyst
Computer systems analysts assess an organization’s computer systems and recommend changes to hardware and software to enhance the company’s efficiency.
Because the job requires regular communication with managers and employees, computer systems analysts need to have strong interpersonal skills. Systems analysts need to be able to convince staff and management to adopt technology solutions that meet organizational needs.
Also, systems analysts need the curiosity and thirst for continual learning to track trends in technology and research cutting-edge systems.
Systems analysts also need business skills to recognize what’s best for the entire organization. Similar job titles are business analysts or business systems analysts.
Computer Network Architect
Computer network architects design, implement, and maintain networking and data communication systems, including local area networks, wide area networks, extranets, and intranets. They assess the needs of organizations for data sharing and communications.
Computer network architects also evaluate the products and services available in the marketplace. Computer network architects test systems before they are implemented and resolve problems as they occur after the setup is in place.
Computer network architects need to have the analytical skills to evaluate computer networks.
Web developers assess the needs of users for information-based resources. They create the technical structure for websites and make sure that web pages are accessible and easily downloadable through a variety of browsers and interfaces.
Web developers structure sites to maximize the number of page views and visitors through search engine optimization. They must have the communication skills and creativity needed to ensure the website meets its users’ needs.
Information Security Analyst
Information security analysts create systems to protect information networks and websites from cyberattacks and other security breaches. Their responsibilities also include researching trends in data security to anticipate problems and install systems to prevent issues before they occur.
Security analysts also need strong problem-solving skills to investigate breaches, determine the causes, and modify or repair security systems.
Computer and Information Research Scientists
Computer and information research scientists invent and design new approaches to computing technology and find innovative uses for existing technology. They study and solve complex problems in computing for business, science, medicine, and other fields.
Computer and information research scientists write algorithms that are used to detect and analyze patterns in very large datasets. Some computer and information research scientists create the programs that control robots.
Computer and Information Systems Managers
Computer science engineering jobs include computer and information systems managers analyze a company’s technology needs and oversee the implementation of appropriate data systems. They need to be able to evaluate software, hardware, networking, and other technology resources for purchase or development purposes.
Because computer and information systems managers hire, train, and supervise staff, interpersonal skills are vital in this role. They must be strong leaders who can communicate effectively with their staff.
IT Project Manager
Project managers in the IT sector coordinate the efforts of a team of programmers/developers and analysts to complete projects. They also analyze technical problems for their company or a client organization, proposing solutions and tips to enhance productivity.
Problem-solving skills and a broad knowledge of technology and computer systems help computer science majors excel in this role. Strong communication skills are required to decipher the needs of users and convey technical specifications to developers.
Data Scientist / Data Associate : for this profile companies mostly prefer students who have worked or taken courses in this area. It pays as you grow experienced. Experience matters here.
Software Engineers: these are mostly product or services developers in the industry. Some come with a profile like front-end developer/ back- end-developer .It is also one and the same thing. So these will be mostly the application building guys.
Infrastructure: Some companies offer the Software engineer profile but for the Infrastructure. This mostly includes your storage, database, deployment, cloud etc. You may work on writing scripts for the automation of the infrastructure maintenance process. Basically sub roles under this are DB admin etc.
System Engineer : It is closer to the hardware. You mostly work on c/c++ etc. Work on software specific to a hardware. However, it is also good as it is lately being intersected with Artificial Intelligence, robotics etc.
Security Engineer: As the name says, again it requires a skill in handling security issues. You basically work towards securing systems. writing authentication artifacts.
Business Analyst: Basically it involves dealing with clients and chalking out the requirements and product boundaries and getting the required features in product or services.
Delivery manager: It is basically an Architect role. Architects require you to be aware of everything from start to finish in a product or service development role. It requires coding as well. It is highly unlikely that you get this profile for graduates.