Words and Definition


Toxic compounds, produced by moulds (fungi) of the Aspergillus flavus group, that bind to DNA and prevent replication and transcription. Aflatoxins can cause acute liver damage and cancer. Animals may be poisoned by eating stored food or feed contaminated with the mould.


An organism with four genomes derived from hybridization of different species. Usually, in forms that become established, two of the four genomes are from one species and two are from another species.


Process in which the introduction of microorganisms increases the rate of bioremediation of pollutants in a polluted environment.

Biolistics(from biological+ballistics)

A technique to insert DNA into cells. The DNA is mixed with small metal particles usually tungsten or gold a fraction of micrometre across.These are then fired into a cell at very high speed. They puncture the cell and carry the DNA into the cell. Biolistics has an advantage over transfection, transduction,etc., because it can apply to any cell or indeed to parts of a cell.

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